Set in the final years of Nicolae Ceauşescu's repressive communist regime in Romania, 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days follows the story of two students, Otilia and Găbiţa, during the course of a day. When a pregnant Găbiţa decides to get an abortion – a procedure banned by the state – the two seek the help of an illegal abortionist, Mr. Bebe.

4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days is considered a key work in the Romanian New Wave cinema of the mid-2000s. The films of this movement are aesthetically united by an austere and often minimalist style, which is evident in Mungiu's gritty and raw visuals. Illegal abortions were a pertinent issue in 1960s Romania and sources say that by the end of the communist era, more than 500,000 women had died as a result. In spite of the several risks that the characters in the film face, their sheer tenacity to go through with their choices makes for a harrowing yet incredibly powerful viewing.